Cara Nak Kurus Adalah Dengan Mengunyah

Posted on Updated on

Semester ni dua kali ana dapat tugasan untuk journal review. Memang rasa excited sangat sebab ana suka belek journal, walau pun tak faham satu apa pun. Huu~

Masa dapat tugasan ni, memang rasa blur. Semua soalan berasak-asak dalam fikiran.

Journal review itu apa?

Journal review tu review journal lah. Buat summary, kritik semua benda dalam journal tu:graph, gambar, data, result etc. boleh juga tambah info kalau tahu dan untuk menyedapkan lagi tambah puji-pujian dan cadangan yang membina. Tapi yang penting kena ada maklumat yang tepat dan padat untuk tambah-tambah, tak boleh hentam kromo macam-pandai-sangat. Jadi kenalah buat homework cari maklumat lain.

Part cari maklumat adalah part yang paling ana suka. Macam beli buku. Ana beli berpuluh-puluh. Cari journal di internet print berpuluh keping, potestet journal dari perpustakaan-macam nak potostet semua journal yang ada kat situ! Tapi, in the end tak mampu nak baca. T.T Huu~ Tak baca semua tapi akan baca juga suatu hari nanti.

Kenapa buat journal review?

Ni ana jumpa kat internet:

The ability to read and critically analyze scientific journal articles allows you to

  • understand the implications of current scientific research and how that research applies to your circumstances
  • separate science from pseudoscience and belief
  • understand the long-term, practical implications of the research

Macam mana nak buat?

Ni pun ana jumpa kat internet:

Heading:  The heading should list the full title of the article, authors’ names, year of publication, and journal reference information (name of journal, volume, issue number, and pages).  This is essentially all of the information a person would need to track down the journal article.  

Article summary:  This section summarizes the article and should answer what questions are being asked by the author, the hypothesis that is being tested, predictions the author makes regarding the hypothesis, methods used to test the hypothesis, results obtained from the experiment, and the conclusions the author makes based on the results of the experiments.  In this section, you should interpret the article in your own words, or cite the author when you must make a direct quote.  This section should not be a direct and detailed repeat of the author’s paper, but should be a summary that you have compiled on your own.  You should use this section to write a cohesive essay on the research article you have chosen.  One note:  Please do not get hung up on understanding the technical aspects of the experiments, the statistical analyses, or the details of methods used to perform experiments.  In most cases, these details are understood in depth only by professionals in the specific field of research.  Your job is to gloss over the details and write a summary of the ideas that spawned the experiments.   

 Conclusion:  This section should summarize the tone of the article.  Pay particular attention to the author’s conclusions, any long-term or practical implications of the research, and any follow-up studies the author suggests or that you think could be done. 

 Bla, bla. Memang panjang. Tapi nak buat ni tak boleh panjang-panjang dalam 5 pages saja, yang optimum okeh? Maknanya kena buat paling tepat, padat dan ringkas.

Ni contoh journal review ana & the gang buat untuk subjek Food Biotechnology.

Dipersilakan membaca ya. Kalau nak tau macam mana boleh kurus dengan chewing gum!

A journal review: Influence of microwave-microencapsulated citric acid on some sensory properties of chewing gum

Ni part ana buat–>Overview The paper entitled ‘Influence of microwave-microencapsulated citric acid on some sensory properties of chewing gum’ was written by Soleiman Abbasi et. al. from Iran and has been published in the Journal of Microencapsulation, February 2009. It is aiming towards an alternative of microcapsule with reduced cost, uncomplicated and short duration processing.  The capability of microwave-microencapsulated citric acid powders at various particle sizes using casein and inulin were examined. Subsequently, the organoleptic properties of ribbon-type chewing gum were compared to uncoated citric acid and commercial one (microencapsulated citric acid with stearine).

Ni pun—>Introduction

Chewing gum is a sweetened, flavored confection composed mainly latex; natural or artificial. It is invented from the culture of people worldwide that love to chew on natural materials for hundreds of years. Due to the increased popularity of chewing gum, the demand for it rose quickly. Many researches come out with new findings to enhance the productivity and quality of chewing gum, together with the benefits to chew e.g. improve memory (Wilkinson, L. et. al., 2002), reduce stress, burn calories (WRIGLEY Jr. Company, n.d) and lessen dental caries (Szoke, J. et. al., 2001). New technologies of microencapsulation and microwave have opened a novel strategy to produce chewing gum. (Soleiman Abbasi et. al., 2009)

Microencapsulation is defined as a process of enclosing micron-sized particles of solids/ droplets of liquids/ gasses in inert shell to isolates and protects them from external environment (Ghosh, S.K, 2006). It results in minimization of coloring reaction, less inversion of sucrose and interaction between ingredients. Apart from this, the core material can be ruptured by chemical activities such as mucus and physical activities i.e. chewing in a control manner for long-lasting acidic taste.

The principle of microwave that impinges dielectric material with electromagnetic wave (0.3-300 GHz) results in the fusing of shell and thus covering the core. This is due to different dielectric properties that depend on chemical composition, physical, microwave frequency, temperature (where free water and dissolved ion is high), non-dissolved ions and colloids. The advantage on using microwave is no contact occurred between heat source and material. Besides, heating is volumetric, rapid and highly specific.

Microencapsulation of citric acid  coarse & micronized powder

Citric acid coarse powder was prepared from monohydrated citric acid crystals. Microencapsulation of citric acid coarse powder (100-500µm) with casein is optimum at high microwave power intensity (1200W) with 150s duration, and 1:10 ratio (citric acid powder: wall materials) where at this ratio the citric acid powders were almost all covered by the wall materials. Inulin also had the similar treatment except the time needed was shorter than casein i.e. in 50s. Microencapsulation of micronized citric acid (<100µm) with casein and inulin has equal optimum conditions to the larger particles which indicates that the particles sizes do not give impact on the process. This also shows that microencapsulation of citric acid powders at various particle sizes can be developed. Therefore it is possible to obtain larger particles which can reduce relationship between the surface area and the volume in order to avoid evaporation. However, the spherical shapes were irregular (Figure 1). This drawback can lead to larger surface area and increase of exudation of flavor (citric acid) from microcapsule. (WIPO, 1991)

Mechanical strength

The microcapsules mechanical strength was measured by exerting motion on them causing the particles being smashed to the tube wall or encountered each other. Subsequently their coats rubbed and peeled off. The end result shows that the coats have different durability against mechanical forces where inulin has the strongest stickiness to the citric acid particles (due to its chemical structure, physico-chemical interactions and dielectric properties of the coatings) followed by casein, LM pectin, fibrosis CMC and sorbitol.

Sensory evaluation

The ribbon-type chewing gum with casein-coated microcapsules has striped and irregular white lines on the surface, the mixing process was too hard and duration of kneading was longer than ordinary chewing gums. On the contrary, the mixing and kneading process of inulin-coated microcapsule were quite short and easy. However, it contains some white spots which were probably attributed to residues of purely clumped inulins. Sensory evaluation was conducted to rank three sensory properties (texture, retention of sour taste and aftertaste) by the semi trained taste panels 24 hours after manufacturing. A good distribution in chewing gum preferably to consists of two phase systems of 20% insoluble gum base and 80% soluble ingredients for chewable and fresh-taste chewing gum (Soleiman Abbasi et. al., 2009).

Texture. Normal chewing gum texture with uncoated citric acid powder results in weaken and hollow texture due to chemical reaction with gum base which deteriorate its natural structure and lattice. However, casein-coated microcapsule has the worst texture in comparison with others. This is due to the presence of a relatively large amount of casein powder which in turn causes the texture looked dried and hollowed. The chewing gum is hard to chew and knead, therefore less pleasant. On the other hand, commercial microcapsule’s texture is the most desirable one. This can be probably related to the lubricating effect of stearine which contributes to a trouble-free displacement of chewing gum layers during the kneading and chewing processes. Chewing gum with inulin-coated microcapsules was in the second place. Prolongation of sour taste. To get a slow release of flavor the matrix material of microcapsule should contain wax with hard, water-soluble and low penetrometer resistance such as stearine (WIPO, 1991) However, inulin-coated microcapsule has the longest retention time for releasing sour taste during the chewing process compared to the other types. Aftertaste. The presence of casein gives an unpleasant taste compared to inulin. Chewing gum treated with inulin-coated citric acid achieved the highest overall acceptance. In addition, inulin as a well-known prebiotic, can add nutritive value to chewing gum to become functional food (Soleiman Abbasi et. al., 2009). However, in Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Champagne and Fustier (2007) reported that,

Prebiotics is nondigestible food ingredients that can be beneficially affecting the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or the activity of bacteria in the gut, raising the possibility of using microencapsulation to deliver multiple bioactive ingredients. However, co-encapsulation with prebiotics has so far not proven better than with glucose in enhancing the resilience of lactobacilli to gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, the data suggest that at least 3g of prebiotics in a sample (which is rarely attained in microencapsulation products) are required to significantly affect the probiotic population in the gastrointestinal tract.”  (p. 188)

Thus, additional research should be done to modify the efficient of inulin as prebiotic.

Conclusion –> ni part ana buat jugak

Production of chewing gum with microwave-microencapsulation strategy has been claimed as a novel, low cost, rapid, efficient and able to produce various particle sizes of microcapsule.

The idea to manipulate chewing gum for better benefits such as by producing it with functional, nutritional and dietetic characteristics can attract consumers and increase the trade.  This is crucial because in some countries, chewing gum has a bad reputation. For instance, Singapore has banned chewing gum since 1992 because of its inconvenience to the environment. However, in 2004, chewing gum of therapeutic value is allowed. Besides that, development of biodegradable chewing gum, with the help of the microwave-microencapsulation strategy, which contain anti-sticking agent and biodegradable polymer, can overcome this problem (Wittorff, H. et. al., n.d).  

In addition, for Muslim consumers, the usage of inulin and casein coatings can eliminate the uncertainty of its halal status as they are originally comes from plant (polysaccharide) and cow’s milk (protein) rather than using stearin which usually derived from animal fats (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2008).

Still, several considerations should be taken as the research was done in a small scale by using domestic microwave oven since the radiation carries too little energy to ionize the molecules. This can therefore create uneven heating for industrial aim (Lassen, A., & Ovesen, L., 1995). However, the large industrial microwave that operates with heating frequency of 915 MHz and 328 millimeters wavelength obviously can heat food perfectly well. Another important thing to think about is the consumer awareness on the risk of using microwave.  Nevertheless, according to US FDA, there is a limitation of the amount of microwave that can leak from an oven; 5 milliwatts (mW). Besides, it is important to note that the radiation of microwave oven is non-ionizing.

In conclusion, the capacity to produce microcapsule with controlled characteristics, better particle size distribution, and energy-efficient heating process need to be enhanced in order to manufacture competitive product i.e. chewing gum with low operating cost. Thus it is highly recommended on intensive and continual researches.

 References—>ni ana buat, eh edit. =p

Champagne, C.P., & Fustier, P. (2007). Microencapsulation for the improved delivery of bioactive compounds into foods. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 18, pp. 184-190.

Ghosh, S.K. (2006). Functional Coatings and Microencapsulation: A General Perspective. Functional Coatings, pp. 12-14

Lassen, A., & Ovesen, L.(1995). Nutritional Effects of Microwave Cooking. Retrieved on  February 23, 2010 from

Soleiman Abbasi et. al. (2009) Influence of microwave-microencapsulated citric acid on some sensory properties of chewing gum. Journal of Miroencapsulation, 26 (1), pp.90-96

Szoke, J., et. al. (2001) Effect of After-meal Sucrose-free Gum-chewing on Clinical Caries. J. Dent Res 80(8), pp. 1725-1729

The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. (2008). Stearin. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from

U.S Food and Drug Administration-USFDA. (2010) Radiation-Emitting Products. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from

Wilkinson, L. et. al (2002) Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in  healthy volunteers. Apetite, (38), pp. 235-236

Wittorff C. & Neergaard, J. (nd). Biodegradable chewing gum comprising biodegradable polymer with high glass transition temperature. Retrieved March 15, 2010 from

World Intellectual Property Organization-WIPO (1991) Process for preparing microcapsule scontaining  a flavourant embedded in a matrix material and products prepared by using  the process.  Retrieved February 23, 2010 from

WRIGLEY Jr. Company (n.d) Benefits of Chewing. Retrieved on  February 23, 2010 from


Fuh, panjang kan? Malas nak baca? Tak apa, ni hanya untuk orang yang minat sangat membaca. ^_^


Sekian. Terima kasih. 

5 thoughts on “Cara Nak Kurus Adalah Dengan Mengunyah

    Tiada lagi Astro | Rangsangan Kejuruteraan Hidup said:
    April 8, 2010 at 11:07 am

    [...] Cara Nak Kurus Adalah Dengan Mengunyah « sufiyyah~ [...]

    Nour el-Yaqeen said:
    April 14, 2010 at 3:47 am

    patut la dah nampak kurus sikit;) said:
    September 20, 2010 at 7:56 am

    Apa pun diet yang diambil perlu ada kekuatan dan keazaman. Disamping itu perlu pembantu seperti suami/isteri supaya dapat di kontrol betul-betul.

    December 12, 2010 at 12:52 pm

    Ber minat nk baca tp xfhm la.bleh translet bm x.maklum le
    belajo x tgi

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s