Applied Molecular Genetics

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Applied Molecular Genetics.

Subjek killer  budak Food Biotechnology. Silibusnya banyak merangkumi genetik dan GMO (Genetically Modified Organism).

Ya, yang macam kamu pernah dengar, tomato tahan lama, padi yang ada beta-karotene, pokok kapas tahan racun rumpai, soya tahan racun serangga atau pun atau pun…dan paling terkini [sepuluh tahun kemajuan Barat= terkini di Malaysia] pokok yang boleh hasilkan Antibodi Manusia!    

Menarik bukan? Bayangkan hanya perlu makan daun [macam kambing] dan anda boleh kuat-sihat-kalis serangan patogen-patogen jahat yang mahu mengacau bilaukan badan anda! Tanpa perlu jumpa doktor dan habis RM5o, anda boleh tanam pokok ini di laman rumah di sebelah pokok mempelam.

Okeh. Hari ini ana akan terangkan tajuk ‘Quantification of Heterologous Protein Levels in Transgenic Plants by ELISA’.

Sila dengar apa yang ana nak terangkan ni dan studi bersama-sama ya! 6_6

Mula-mula mari kita fahami makna tajuknya.

[bold maknanya dengan suara garang dan tegas]

Quantification- Pembilangan

Heterologous- something that not common in that organism, meaning that originally not found in it

Protein-macromolecule that consist of amino acids subunits connected by amide bonds. Alah, daging lembu, badan kamu itu adalah protein. Tapi protein bukan lemak. Jangan keliru.

Level- aras, referring to the protein content

Transgenic plant-transformed plant, new plant that contains foreign gene. Contohnya macam pokok getah keluarkan darah, bukan getah sekerap. Pelik kan? Ini sebabnya pokok getah itu punya gen yang boleh hasilkan darah…ngeri

ELISA- enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay

Okeh, secara ringkasnya..

Protein in this topic is referring to IgG-type antibody with Y-shaped form. First and foremost, let me explain how the antibody looks like. So, please put on your thinking cap, we’ll explore together gether ya.

Y

Mr. Y shaped antibody has two arms of identical antigen-binding sites. However, these sites are highly variable between different molecules. 

But before that, do you know what antigen is?

Antigen can be anything, you named it! Protein, carbohydrate, or even your nails, can be antigen. It triggers your immune system; including antibody to act on it as  your immune systemsees antigens as foreigner=enemy=orang jahat. Same like virus attacking your body.

The interaction of the two arms with antigens involves multiple noncovalent bonds e.g. Hydrogen Bond, Electrostatics , Van der Waals and Hydrophobic Attractive forces.

Okeh, ingat ada berapa? EMPAT!

Because of theses forces, high specificity can be achieved, the antibody recognize its antigen even in the presence of a huge amounts of antigen! Subhanallah~

The stem of Mr. Y antibody is a constant region and has a very limited diversity.

LADY saSa

I know you want to know more about ELISA.

ELISA is actually a pretty girl once lived in Edensor, a beautiful village.

Sila jangan percaya. Hehe.

ELISA is an acronym of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, one type of immunoassays; a diagnostic tool to measurent or detect antigen/antibody.

How we can measure it? 

By using labelled antigen/antibody. Labelling can be done by using horseradish peroxide, alkaline phosphatase, beta-galactosidase etc. Substrates added will turn the antibody and the compunds to become colored mixture and thus can be detected by using spectrophotometer or fluorometer.

There are 4 types of ELISA.

1. Direct

2. Indirect

3. Sandwich

4. Competition

 

OKEH.

 

 Ana tau semua tak baca pun dan dah bosan.

 

Jom makan sandwich!

 

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